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Full text of "The southern sanitarium [serial]"

HE SOUTHERN 
SANITARIUM { 



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•IMATE • HEALTH • LIK 




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UILO! NG 



CONTENTS. 



:rintion Pric 



■r Minum; r>n. •■ uipv i 



ESTABLISHED 1896. 



RALEIGH, N. C. 



H. J. BROWN' 

COFFIN 
HOUSE 

PS THK LARGEST, FINEST AND BEST SELECTED STOCK 

Coffins and Caskets, in Cloth, 

Wood and Metal; also Aluminum 

Caskets, Burial Robes, Wrappers, 
Slippers for Ladies, Gents and Child 
Also Burglar-Proof Grayi ts. 

J. W. BROWN, 

Proprietor, Funeral Director and Emba 
CHATFIELD & MESSER, 

Agents at Southern Pines, N 




CENTRAL_BuiLDfNa. 



B E HAVE four acres of land on which there are to be 
erected sixteen Pavilions at a cost of $350 each, and 
one Central or Administration Building at a cost of $20,000. 
Four Pavilions are already pledged, two of which have been 
completed and paid for and partly furnished. The institu- 
tion is now open and we are receiving patients. 




Jr^i_ Pavilion 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 
in 2013 



http://archive.org/details/southernsanitari141897s 



(Efye * Southern * Sanitarium 

Devoted to the Cause of Afflicted Humanity. 



Vol. I. Raleigh, N. C, January i, 1897. No. 4. 



IS CONSUMPTION CONTAGIOUS OR CATCHING? 



This is the question so often asked us. We answer that 
the great majority of medical authorities on both sides of 
the Atlantic seem to be very well agreed that consumption 
is contagious or catching. 

A firm belief in the contagiousness of this dreaded di- 
sease has been the cause of our humble efforts in favor of 
a special Sanitarium for consumptive Negroes, that those 
affected might be isolated from those who are not affected 
by this disease. 

What can we hope for but a rapid increase of consump- 
tion, when in many cases a whole family of as many as 
six, eight or ten persons live, cook, eat, wash and SLEEP in 
one room that has scarcely capacity for two or three at 
most, and even then quite often one of this large number 
is sick of consumption in this same room. Do you wonder 
that the disease spreads rapidly? What is the remedy? 
Isolation, isolation, with all kindness and sympathy, but 
isolation where they will have good care, comforts, and a 
plenty of fresh air, with regulation of habits and conditions. 

By this means the diseased ones will live longer and 
under more comfortable and cheering circumstances, while 
a much less number will contract the disease than would 
otherwise have it, had the sick been left in a dull, crowded, 
gloomy home, with unsanitary surroundings. 

The following clipping is so much to the point, and so 
prophetic, that we give it our hearty endorsement by com- 
mending it to our readers : 



2. THE SOUTHERN SANITARIUM. 

" Should those who are diseased marry ? " is a question often asked and 
discussed. It is impossible to treat the human race as we do our beasts ; 
we will kill diseased cattle ; entire herds of valuable Jerseys have been 
destroyed because they were found to be tuberculous. 

It would be equivalent to w T ar if such method were adopted in an at- 
tempt to stamp out tuberculosis in the human race. Yet we must realize 
that efforts stronger and more logical than have been and are now being 
used must eventually be employed for this purpose. Either laws must 
be passed prohibiting intermarriage between health}- and diseased per- 
sons, or compelling the isolation of all who are diseased, irrespective of 
class, condition, and sex. 

This editorial was not written to discuss the best methods of obliterat- 
ing tuberculosis, but to impress upon the profession the necessity of 
pointing out dangers which their patients cannot discover. Those who 
inherit tubercular tendencies should be carefully schooled in habits which ' 
will best enable them to guard against the disease ; many who are to-day 
beyond the hope of recovery would still be on the safer side had they 
been warned in time. Change of climate, quitting the more dangerous 
regions for localities more favorable to their condition, has by itself saved 
many who, had they remained in their former environments, w r ould have 
died. 

Intermarriage between healty and tubercular persons should never be 
sanctioned. The family physician can warn parents of the dangers of 
such unions without offending or appearing officious. — Louisville Medi- 
cal Journal. 



THE EFFECTS OF EHANCIPATION UPON THE MENTAL 

AND PHYSICAL HEALTH OF THE NEGRO OF 

THE SOUTH. 



By Dr. J. F. Miller. 



We have given above the subject upon which Dr. J. F. 
Miller, Superintendent of the Eastern Hospital at Golds- 
boro, N. C, for insane Negroes, read a paper some time ago 
before the Southern Medico-Psychological Association, and 
which has since been printed in pamphlet form and circu- 
lated. 

The paper is a very interesting one from several stand- 
points, and, indeed, so much so that we cannot pass it by 
without comment. 



THE SOUTHERN SANITARIUM. 3 

It is interesting because of Dr. Miller's experience and 
his present official relation to the Negro. 

It is also of interest because of the practical truth ex- 
pressed in some parts of it. 

But it becomes the more interesting as we note and re- 
flect upon the very illogical and unfounded conclusions the 
writer claims to have reached. 

Such conclusions, if believed, are likely to do the Negro 
serious damage in the presence of those who do not stop to 
question the truthfulness of such statements as the 
doctor makes. 

While we are aware of the fact that we belong to a de- 
pendent race of people, about whom, when taken as a whole, 
critics may find room to say many hard and discouraging 
things, yet it is to be remembered that a part of the race 
are looking upward, and are seeking as best they can to 
inarch onward, and therefore should receive encouragement 
and help from those ahead of them, instead of one in high 
position seeking, not only to discourage them, but to dis- 
courage those who are trying to help them. We do not 
intend to attempt to deny a single truth the doctor expresses ; 
in fact we agree with him in the seeming increased coinci- 
dence of insanity and tuberculosis among the Negroes. 
But how, in the name of common reason a man, who 
claims to be learned in the science of medicine and reading 
daily, as we suppose, the current literature of the profes- 
sion, can jump to such conclusions as the following, in the 
face of all the facts to the contrary, we cannot even sur- 
mise. 

NOW HEAR HIM. 

Dr. J. F. Miller says: "I am fully aware that among the 
Afro-Americans of the South ma}- be found some orators 
eloquent in speech; some who have attained to ripe schol- 
arship, and many others who have demonstrated considera- 



4 THE SOUTHERN SANITARIUM. 

ble capacity in the learned professions and in business cir- 
cles; but as a rule snch are of mixed blood." 

The last clause of the doctor's statement, which attri- 
butes all the worth of the race to the mixed blooded ones, 
making the worth of the real Negro the exception, simply 
demonstrates the fact that the doctor is grossly ignorant of 
the details of the Negroes' intellectual development, and 
simply writes from sentiment without regard to the facts 
in the case. 

Now let us see what the facts are : Dr. Blyden, the 
President of Liberia College in Africa, is acknowledged 
by American and European scholars to be the most learned 
Negro known to the educated world. He speaks fluently 
seven different and distinct languages with as much ease 
as we do the English language, yet he is as black as a 
black silk hat. 

We would that Dr. Miller could look into his face and 
have some experience with that bright intellect under that 
black skin. 

The most brilliant legal Negro representation at the 
American bar is a black man reared (I think) in South 
Carolina. • 

Many of the most brilliant and successful Negro medi- 
cal practitioners in America, Liberia and the West Indies 
are black Negroes. The silver-tongued orator (who now 
sleeps the long sleep), 'Dr. J. C. Price, was a black man of 
a beautiful hue. 

The late Rev. W. W. Brown was possibly, all things 
considered, America's greatest financier, was born a slave, 
and never had any special training, yet from almost noth- 
ing he accumulated a young fortune and became president 
of a bank in about ten years. He was truly a black man. 

Black Patti, who has been honored before many of the 
crowned heads of the civilized world, is undoubtedly a 
gifted singer. She, too, is a black woman. 

Blind Tom, the wonder of the world, was a black man. 



THE SOUTHERN SANITARIUM. 5 

The Negro pulpit is occupied all over this country with 
black men, eminent and devout in their calling. 

And so we could name them up into the thousands and 
then not name them all who, though black, are yet emi- 
nent. Does this look like what Dr. Miller says? "as a 
rule, such are of mixed blood." 

Dr. Miller also says of the Negro : " But as a class, their 
mental calibre is small ; the convolutions of their brain 
are few and superficial ; their cranial measurement small, 
and other anitomical facts demonstrate his inferiority." 

Now let us, see what are the facts in this case : 

Dr. Austin Flint in his work on Human Physiology 
gives an ethnological table derived from 405 autopsies of 
white and Negro brains, in which the average weight of 
the brains of 24 whites was 52.06 oz., while the average 
weight of 141 Negro brains was 46.96 oz. 

In another table 278 autopsies upon the brains of white 
subjects he gave an average of 49^ oz. 

Here is a difference in weight that might be taken as 
conclusive, but the same authority gives another table in 
which he shows that a congenital imbecile who died in the 
West Riding Lunatic Asylum in 1876, at the age of 30 
years, and whose brain weighed 70.50 oz. A brick-layer 
also who could not read nor write, but was of fair intelli- 
gence, was reported by Dr. James Morris to have a brain 
weighing 67.00 oz. There was alstf reported by Dr. Tuke 
a congenital epileptic idiot, whose brain weighed 60 oz. 

Yet a celebrated mineralogist's brain weighed only 
43.24. Here was a strong active mind in a small brain, 
and possibly few convolutions. 

A boy also, age 13 years, healthy and intelligent, died 
from injuries caused by a fall, was reported in the British 
Medical Journal October 19, 1872, whose brain- weighed 
58. oz. 

We can readily see now that neither the size nor the 
weight of an individual brain can be taken as an absolute 



6 THE SOUTHERN SANITARIUM. 

measurement of the intellectual capacity of that individ- 
ual. For above quotations show that persons who were 
born idiots, and whose mental calibre was well known, had 
brains much more weighty than the great Daniel Webster, 
whose brain weighed 53.50 oz., or Cuvier, whose brain 
weighed 64.33 oz., or Abercrombie, whose brain weighed 
63 oz. The last three named were great men possessing 
great intellects. 

Dr. Flint also says upon this same subject : " If w r e ac- 
cept the view, which is in every way reasonable, that the 
gray substance of the cerebral hemispheres is the generator 
of the mind, it would be necessary in comparing different 
individuals, with the view of establishing a definite rela- 
tion between brain, substance and intelligence, to estimate 
the amount of gray matter; but it is not easy to see how 
this can be done with any degree of accuracy." 

Now, then, in the face of these facts, coming from such 
eminent authority of international reputation, we put the 
question : " How, in the name of truth and justice, can Dr. 
J. F. Miller jump to the very positive conclusion that the 
convolutions of the negro's brain are few and superficial, 
and his cranial measurement small, etc., and that m conse- 
quence of which their mental calibre is small.'''' This is 
what he positively asserts. 

We have shown beyond all reasonable doubt that many 
very small brains have done much greater and better work 
than other much larg-er brains with larger cranial measure- 
ments. 

W T e have proven that persons possessing the largest brains, 
with two doubtful exceptions, of which we have any record, 
were in their mentality exceedingly low, indeed, with 
scarcely no mental force at all. These persons, of course, 
had larger cranial measurements. 

We have proven by eminent authority that the gray sub- 
stance of the cerebral hemispheres is the generator of the 
mind, and that we cannot establish a definite relation be- 



THE SOUTHERN SANITARIUM. 7 

tween brain substance and intelligence until we can esti- 
mate the amount of gray matter in the brain. 

Dr. Flint and others say : u It is not easy to see how this 
can be done with any degree of accuracy." 

If we grant Dr. Miller that the convolutions are superficial' 
and few, what does he gain? He certainly cannot know 
the amount of gray matter, and therefore cannot know defi- 
nitely the forces of that certain intellect. 

We give one more quotation from a reliable authority in 
reference to the amount of brain substance, who says: 

"A careful study of the weights given in the table 
shows the impossibility of applying to individuals an ab- 
solute rule that the greatest brain-power is connected with 
the greatest amount of brain substance." 

What now becomes of Dr. Miller's so-called scanty and 
superficial convolutions with small cranial measurements? 
Let him find them. 

Dr. Miller also asserts concerning the Negro, that " The 
color of his skin is a mark of inferiority, and not the re- 
sult of climatic influences, as has been declared by some." 

Here the Doctor is absolutely certain and positive as he 
is in Mrery case. Certainly if he has been reading the 
recent works on physiology that have been written since 
the days when he used to study the science, he would 
never make such an incautious and unscientific statement. 

If he will revert to the subject of the physiological an- 
atomy of the skin he will find, to his possible surprise, 
that the best authorities are agreed that the color of the 
skin is dependant upon the coloring matter or pigment in 
the pigmentary cells of the malpighian layer of the skin ; 
hence the various colors in the Negro — the color of the 
Chinaman, the Indian and the Caucasian. It is a well 
established fact that the skin does change its color (or 
rather the pigment) under certain conditions of climate, 
age, season, health, etc. These changes, whether perma- 
nent or temporary, of themselves, can have nothing to do 
with the inherent mental capacity of the 1 individual. 



8 THE SOUTHERN SANITARIUM. 

Now, then, we once more ask, will Dr. J. F. Miller, in 
the face of such authorities as Drs. Flint, Baker, Harris, 
Elliot and others already named, still contend with his 
absolute certainty, that all he has said, as quoted by us, is 
correct, and therefore eminent authorities are mistaken? 

It is to be remembered that Dr. Miller has spoken with 
positive certainty in all he says against the ability of the 
Negro, expressing no doubt, and therefore seems to defy the 
best authority and set himself up as the criterion upon this 
subject. Dr. Miller must admit, however, upon reflection, 
that there have been many, many more Negroes than he 
gives credit for, whose African blood could not be doubted 
and whose skin was certainly black. who ; under the cir- 
cumstances, have been a reasonably gratifying success in 
every avenue in which they have been permitted to operate 
in this country, and that whether their " cerebral convolu- 
tions" were "scanty" and "superficial" and their "cra- 
nial measurements small" and their skin black or not, yet 
whatever the Negro has accomplished of good has been 
done in consequence of inherant mental powers that were 
handed down to him from the great mind of God, as a sa- 
cred trust, and therefore unwarranted criticisms of their 
mental and physical construction cannot change inherent 
conditions. 



SOME PROBABLE CAUSES OF THE RAPID SPREAD OF 
CONSUHPTION AMONG THE NEGROES. 



Some of the probable causes for the very rapid spread of 
consumption among the Negroes in the South may be sug- 
gested as follows: 

i. Sudden changes in their habits, environments and 
occupations. 

2. Inability to provide many of the necessary comforts 
of life. 

3. The assumption of great responsibilities. 

• 



THE SOUTHERN SANITARIUM. 9 

4. Living in crowded and unsanitary tenement houses. 

5. Failure to place sufficient safeguards around the health 
of mothers, during the period of gestation, and a want of 
sufficient care for both the mother and child during the 
period of lactation. 

6. Ignorance of and disregard for the laws of hygiene. 

7. Marrying without due regard for the family history 
on either side, or the present health of either of the two 
parties. 

8. A want of sufficient familiarity with the early history 
and symptoms of the disease, so as to be able to make an 
early diagnosis. 

9. Mixing or crossing of the races. 

10. Over crowded and badly ventilated churches and 
schools. 

11. Faulty heating and boarding departments of many 
of our higrh schools and colleges. 



WILL YOU BELIEVE IT? 



If the Negro had money sufficient with which to change 
climate and residence, under medical advice, for the pro- 
tection of his health and life from the ravages of Con- 
sumption, as do his more favored white friends, I beg to 
ask, is there a single sanitary shelter at any health resort 
here in the South under which he could put his head ? It 
is a well-know^i fact that all of the hotels (many of which 
are but sanitary institutions) here in the South, as well as 
the special sanitary institutions for consumptives, are, by 
long-standing customs and laws, closed against the Negro. 
He simply cannot be admitted, whatever may be his cir- 
cumstances. He neither owns nor controls a single sani- 
tary hotel or institution at any of these places of resort in 
the South. 



IO THE SOUTHERN SANITARIUM. 

Whatever may be his chances to save or protect his life 
and health from this dreaded disease, the facts remain the 
same? He is, therefore, doomed to an early death in almost 
every case as the only relief from the pangs of deprivation 
and want, to say nothing about the sufferings incident to 
the disease. He must remain at home and be deprived of 
any of the benefits that might be gained by a change of 
residence. And what is this home? It is, in the great 
majority of cases, only a crowded, unclean, tenement 
house, too often unfit for the indwelling of so many cattle. 

ON THE OTHER HAND 

If there were such institutions or hotels open to him, as 
a part of the general public, there would even then be but 
a limited number who could command the means with 
which to pay necessaay expenses. So that, even then, the 
great majority of Negro sufferers from this disease would 
still be helpless and almost friendless. 

Again, those institutions in the North into which these 
sufferers might gain admission, are in a climate entirely 
unsuited to their already diseased lungs. 

Now, then, here is the condition of most Negro con- 
sumptives : In crowded, unclean and uncomfortable tene- 
ment houses, without sufficient and proper food or nurs- 
ing, often weeks, and even months, go by without any 
change of night-clothing or bedding ; no kind hand to give 
even what food some neighbor has sent; no money or 
friend to have the prescription filled that some physician 
has kindly but hopelessly left; no fuel for fire, no oil for 
lamp — and when there is a lamp, it often has no globe or 
chimney, hence the room at night is filled with smoke. 
The dear old mother, the kind father, or husband, or wife, 
upon whom the sick is dependent, has to leave at early 
morning to return late at night in order to provide even 
these rude excuses for comfort. The poor consumptive 



• THE SOUTHERN SANITARIUM. II 

remains thus alone from morning till night, day after day, 
forsaken by friends, many of whom would at least visit 
and administer to him some comforts but for the loathsome- 
ness of himself and his surroundings. 

I will give only two out of many cases coming under 
my own observation : 

I visited a girl eighteen years of age just before she 
died. She had been sick for ten months, and for eight 
months had been confined to her bed. Her bed had, at 
some time, been filled with straw that had, from long use, 
become finely powdered and bagged down between the bed- 
slats, leaving only the cloth of the ticking between the 
body of the patient and the slats, which had cut and lacer- 
ated the skin and the soft tisssues beneath it, exposing 
bleeding surfaces of the bones, all of which presented a 
bloody mass of the lacerated tissues of the back of this 
miserable sufferer. It was only a few days, however, after 
I saw her before death came as the only relief. 

Another girl whom I saw some time ago was in a 
crowded, unclean room, on an unclean bed, and dressed in 
unclean night clothing. The sputa from gangrenous lungs 
had, for several weeks, been deposited on a bank of sand 
placed by the bed for that purpose. The odor in the room 
was simply awful, and the flies swarmed around this sur- 
ferer as disturbed bees do around their hive. Here she lay 
for months, day after day, apparently friendless, and cer- 
tainly helpless, without the friendly hand of a nurse, or 
even the comforting words of many of her former friends, 
who did what they could for a while, but soon gave up in 
• despair, and rather than be annoyed by her loathsome sur- 
roundings they had left her to do the best she could. 

The history of these two cases is the history of many 
more. Indeed, unless consumptives are kept clean, and 
have clean surroundings they are, of all patients, the most 
unpleasant spectacles to the ordinary visitor. These pa- 
tients must have proper care and treatment. 



If THE SOUTHERN SANITARIUM. 

It is, therefore, to this end that the Pickford Sanitarium 
has been established. If we could not cure them we might 
give them comfortable quarters in which to die, at least. 



SOriE FACTS ABOUT OUR TRUSTEES. 



Dr. Richard H. Lewis is the Secretary of the North Caro- 
lina Board of Health, also Consulting Surgeon to the Eye 
Departments of Rex Hospital, Leonard. Medical Hospital, 
St. Agnes Hospital and Professor of Diseases of the Eye in 
Leonard Medical College, Raleigh, N. C. 

Col. A. W. Shaffer is ex-Postmaster, Raleigh, N. C. 

Col. Julian S. Carr is the President of the Blackwell 
Durham Tobacco Company, a philanthropist, one of North 
Carolina's most widely known and influential citizens, Dur- 
ham, N. C. 

Mr. C. F. Meserve is President of Shaw University, Ral- 
eigh, N. C. 

Mr. Berry O'Kelly, Merchant, Method, N. C. 

Mr. E. A. Johnson, Professor of Law at Shaw University. 

Mr. Joseph G. Brown, our treasurer, is President of the 
Citizens National Bank, of Raleigh, N. C. 

Bishop Joseph B. Cheshire, is Bishop of the Diocese of 
North Carolina. 

Mrs. C. J. Pickford, philanthropist, Lynn, Mass. 

Dr. James McKee, Superintendent of Health and Presi- 
dent of the Board of Health, Raleigh, N. C; Professor 
Obstetrics in Leonard Medical College, and Visiting and 
Consulting Physician to St. Agnes, Rex and Leonard Hos- « 
pitals, Raleigh, N. C. 

Prof. A. W. Pegues, Professor of Theology, Shaw Univer- 
sity, Raleigh, N. C. 

Mr. John T. Patrick, Secretary Of the Southern Inter- 
State Immigration and Industrial Association, also Chief 
of Industrial Department S. A. L., Southern Pines, N. C. 



THE SOUTHERN SANITARIUM. 1 3 

Rev. R. H. W. Leak, pastor of the St. Paul A. M. E. 
Church, and editor National Outlook, Raleigh, N. C. 

Dr. Edward 0. Otis, prominent physician, Boston, Mass. 

Dr. H. C. Fulkner, well-known physician, Boston, Mass. 

Bishop A. J. Gaines, Bishop of A. M. E. Church, At- 
lanta, Ga. 

INDUSTRY. 

No unnecessary idleness will be encouraged at this insti- 
tution. Sufficient garden land will be provided, so that 
patients may take Very moderate out-door exercise, and in 
this way, zvhen able so to do, the patient will not only help 
to feed himself, but will take, under healthy rules, such 
physical exercise in the open air as will prove to be a great 
help in expanding the lung cells to a moderate degree, and 
in securing for him certain necessary muscular develop- 
ment. 

We propose to have a well-aired, suitable building, in 
which carpenters, shoemakers, blacksmiths, tin-workers, 
carving and scroll cutters, printers and others of the indus- 
trial arts, may find welcome homelike employment. In this 
way, with the garden, or little farm and shop work, our 
institution will take such a stand as to commend itself both 
to the sufferer and the public in general. This light labor 
will prove to this class of patients not only a pleasant duty 
in warm days in winter, but a desirable, as well as an ac- 
ceptable method of exercise as a part of the treatment which 
they seek. 

My friend, will you help us, and thereby have a hand in 
this work for the most wretchedly diseased of your fellow- 
beings? Will you, on this day of good health, and in the 
midst of a prosperous life, turn a deaf ear to the husky, 
feeb.le call of the suffering and dying, or will you help to 
make comfort for the comfortless? Remember, that you 
and all you have belong to the Lord, therefore don't with- 
hold from His suffering- creatures that which He would 



H THE SOUTHERN SANITARIUM. 

have you give them. As you give to help others who are 
actually in great need, so will He give more abundantly to 
you. 

Please read Matt. 25: 40-45 inclusive. 



NOTES AND CLIPPINGS. 



Our friends who so kindly send us barrels and packages 
will please prepay freight or express on the same, as we 
have no funds that we can use for such purposes, and in 
this way greatly help and oblige the General Manager. 

Notwithstanding the hard times and the opposition 
we have had to meet, we thank the Lord that two build- 
ings are up and paid for, grounds and all. The institution 
is now open and receiving patients at twelve dollars per 
month. 

In each copy of this Journal will be found a pledge 
card, which we urge the friends of our cause to fill out and 
return to us. You can help us ! You must help us ! Our 
needs are many. Anything in the line of food and cloth- 
ing, bedding, etc., will be gratefully received. 

We will place the name of any one on a marble slab, 
and place the same in the wall of any one of the seventeen 
buildings he may choose to erect, or furnish us with the 
means with which to erect, and name the building after 
the donor. Three hundred and fifty dollars will erect any 
one of the sixteen cottages. Twenty thousand dollars will 
erect the Central or Administration Building. 

Just think ! In one city here in the South, the number 
of deaths from consumption in ten years was 3,119, of 
which 611 were white people and 2,508 were colored peo- 



THE SOUTHERN SANITARIUM. 1 5 

pie, showing a death rate of about one of the former to 
three of the latter, by population. The negroes in this 
country constitute less than (1-10) one tenth of the popu- 
lation, and at the same time nearly 40 per cent, of the 
mortality from consumption' alone. Is this not cause for 
alarm ? The facts answer. 

-^ 

Owing to the long and severe illness of the Secretary and 
General Manager, we could not have our public exercises 
at the opening of our Institution, so we opened in a quiet 
way, but under most encouraging circumstances. After 
all, we close the year with our two buildings completed and 
very nearly furnisned, with a debt of about $50.00 only. 

So you see we have the Kind Providence on our side. 
We should not owe one dime on our permanent improve- 
ments but for our physical inability right at the close of 
the year. 

Who will help us pay this at once? Answer. 

-^ 

Dr. Biggs, of the Board of Health, made some startling 
statements before the Board of estimates while that body 
was to-day considering the city budget for 1898. The 
Board of estimates was asked to approve a grant of $60,000 
for the care of tuberculosis in a special hospital. Dr. Biggs, 
speaking for the Board of Health, in support of the appro- 
priation, declared that one out of every seven persons who 
die in his city are victims of tubercular consumption. Dr. 
Biggs further stated that among the working classes the 
per centage of deaths due to this disease was one quarter. 
The Board of Health approved the $60,000 asked for. 

Thank the Lord ! New York City has come in line with 
Massachusetts. Other cities and States must follow. Iso- 
lation of the tuberculous subject will prove to be the only 
salvation for the non-tuberculous. 



1 6 THE SOUTHERN SANITARIUM. 

THE OBJECT. 



It is therefore proposed, "God being willing," in His 
great name, to build a sanitarium and dedicate it to the 
cause of human suffering so that when many, if not all of 
us, are sleeping that long and, I trust, peaceful sleep, there 
may, even then, be some spot on .this Southern soil, to 
which the ghastly consumptive Negro may look, if not for 
a cure, at least for a mitigation of his suffering, that when 
dying he or she may have some sunray of comforting light 
to shine upon that wasting form. 



IHMEDIATE WANT5. 



Furniture and ware for dining-room. 

Furniture, etc., for Matron's room and office. 

■^ 
Bed clothing of all kinds, new or second-handed — only 
clean. 

■^ 
Buckets, cuspidores, towels, napkins, soaps, night cloth- 
ing, disinfectants, drugs, medicines, cotton cloth, etc. 

-^ 
Twenty-five dollars with which to dig a well that we 

may have fresh water. Who will help us to this extent? 

Food, such as tea, coffee, corn meal, flour sugar, fat 
meat, crackers, oat meal, rice, syrup, salt fish; $25,000 to 
complete our other fiften buildings out of the seventeen 
(17) proposed. When this is done we shall have capacity 
for two hundred and fifty (250) patients. Now, then, my 
friend, is there not something in this list of Immediate 
Needs you can give us? Read the list again, and think of 
these poor, helpless sick people upon us to be cared for. 
You can help ! Will you do so? 

"If you cannot give your thousands 

You can give the widow's mite, 
And the least you do for Juesus 

Will be precious in His sight." 



THE SOUTHERN SANITARIUM. 
A NATIONAL INSTITUTION. 



It is to be remembered that the Pickford Sanitarium is 
a National Institution open to all parts of this great 
country for the Negro. There are to be 36 trustees, who 
shall represent all parts of our interests. 

No politics shall be introduced with its afiairs. 

No special denomination or religious belief shall dominate 
its worship. 

It is a Christian institution in the broadest and most 
liberal sense, founded upon the fatherhood of God and the 
brotherhood of man. 



OUR THANKS. 



We beg to tender our sincere thanks to the following 
named persons for aid received for the Pickford Sanitarium 
since our last issue : 

Rev. and Mrs. A. B. Hunter, Raleigh, N. C, $50. 

Rev. John T. Pullen, Raleigh, N. C, $5. 

Messrs Park, Davis & Co., Detroit Mich., one lot of medi- 
cines. 

Messrs Fredrick Stearns & Co., Detroit Mich., one lot of 
medicines. 

Messrs Henry K. Wampole & Co., Philadelphia, Pa., one 
lot of medicines. 

Messrs Schering & Glatz, New York, one lot of medicines. 

The G. F. Harvey Company, Saratoga Springs, N. Y., 
one lot of medicines. 

These are very valuable gifts and certainly are highly ap- 
preciated. 

We have also assurances from Messrs Robinson, Pettet 
& Co., of Louisville, Ky. 

The Purdue Fredrick Company, of New York, and the 
Paul Paquin Laboratories of St. Louis, that their contribu- 
tions will be forthcoming. Thanks, gentlemen. 



THE SOUTHERN SANITARIUM. 
HEALTH. 



by dr. r. h. lewis. Secretary of the N. C. Board of Health, 

The geographical location and the geological formation 
of the State are peculiarly adapted to the production of those 
conditions which make for health in general. As to cli- 
mate, we occupy the vantage-ground of the golden mean, 
inclining somewhat to the warmer side. It is neither too 
hot nor too cold. While we have a generous summer, long 
enough to mature two crops of many kinds, the thermometer 
does not rise as high as it often does far to the northward 
of us, and the summer temperature is not usually oppres- 
sive. We also have a sufficiency of winter, with occasional 
light snows, and once in every few years, ice thick enough 
to skate on in safety, and with rain and dark days, but on 
the whole it is bright and sunshiny. The late Bishop Ly- 
man, who lived many years in Italy, said that the climate 
of Raleigh was superior to that of Florence — more sunshine 
in it. Our winters are just long enough and severe enough 
to restore the snap and vigor and elasticity that may have 
been weakened by the summer — we are enabled to fully re- 
coup any physical wastes attributable to long continued 
heat. The conditions, so far as they relate to the propor- 
tion of heat and cold, are just those which, while permit- 
ting easy and comfortable living from the opportunities 
afforded for work throughout the entire year — the special 
advantage of the South — do not enervate and weaken the 
desire and power of work. In a word, the conditions are 4 
exactly suited to the healthful and pleasant existence of the 
average man. 

Although it is not as dry as it is in some sections of our 
country, still in our long leaf-pine, sand-hill region, where 
the porous soil takes up the water so rapidly that one can 
walk dry-shod in a half-hour after the heaviest rain, it is dry 
enough for the consumptive, and yet he can enjoy the sight 
and smell of the "blessed rain from heaven," and be lulled 



THE SOUTHERN SANITARIUM. 1 9 

to sleep by its patter on the roof. Neither can we boast so 
great elevation as some other localities, but in the matter 
of altitude we have sufficient variety, from the sea-level to 
Mitchell's Peak of nearly 7,000 feet, to suit any constitu- 
tion. Roan Mountain, which it is interesting to know has 
a greater variety of flora between its summit and half-way 
to its base than the whole continent of Europe, is noted for 
the relief its rare pure air affords to the sufferer from hay- 
fever. For consumptive, the high mountain plateau of 
Asheville and vicinity, including particularly, the country 
about Highlands and Blowing Rock, affords very favorable 
conditions. To those of this class who do not bear high 
altitudes well, the pure dry air of the pine-clad sand-hills, 
of Moore and adjoining counties, of which Southern Pines 
is the centre, often proves a healing balm. It is said by 
many who have tried the pine-country further south and 
that of our State, both, that they prefer the latter because 
the climate is not so enervating. 

Although it must, in candor, be said that malarial diseases 
occur in certain sections of the State — as they do in many 
favored sections of higher latitude — they are of a milder 
type, less malignant than in warmer regions. This class of 
diseases has, however, been robbed of its terrors since the 
recent demonstration of the fact that they are chiefly, if not 
entirely, attributable to the drinking of the surface water 
and not to bad air. (For evidence on this point apply to 
the Secretary of the State Board of Health, at Raleigh, for 
•a copy of the health pamphlet on "Drinking Water in its 
Relation to Malarial diseases.") It is practically in the 
power of every person to protect himself from malaria, if 
he desires to do so by confining himself to the water of cis- 
terns and deep bored wells. And it is to be noted as an in- 
teresting fact that some of the more serious and fatal disease 
common to every section of the globe, as typhoid fever, for 
example, are of a milder type and less deadly than in other 
localities not frequented by the Plasmodium malariae. 



20 THE SOUTHERN SANITARIUM. 

In this day of scientific accuracy, an appeal to carefully 
collated facts is desirable. Upon turning to the mortuary 
tables of the Fifth Biennial Report of the State Board of 
Health, we find that the average total death-rate in the 
larger cities and towns where the records are carefully kept 
is 15.5 per thousand — for the whites 12.5, and for so-called 
malarious section the death-rate is actually less than the 
average for the whole number. 

The machinery provided by the State for protecting the 
health of its citizens, consists of a State Board and of County 
Superintendents of Health — to say nothing of municipal 
organizations for that purpose. The former has general 
supervision of the sanitary interests of the people, and the 
latter are charged with the particular care of those in their 
respective counties. Any special information that may be 
desired can be obtained by addressing the Secretary of the 
State Board at Raleigh. 



SOUTHERN RAILWAY. 



Condensed Schedule. 

In Effect June 14, 1896. 



TRAINS LEAVE RALEIGH : 

NORFOLK AND CHATTANOOGA LIMITED. 

3:40 p. M., DAILY. — Solid vescibuled train, with sleeper from Raleigh to 
Chattanooga, via Salisbury, Morganton, Asheville, Hot Springs and 
Knoxville. Connects at Durham for Oxford, Clarksville and Keysville, 
except Sunday; at Greensboro with Washington and Southwestern Ves- 
tibuled (limited) train for all points North, and with main-line train No. 
12 for Danville, Richmond and intermediate stations; also has connection 
for Winston-Salem, and with main-line train No. 35, " United States Fast 
Mail, " for Charlotte, Sparatanburg, Greenville, Atlanta and all points 
South; also Columbia, Augusta, Charleston, Savannah, Jacksonville, and 
all points in Flordia. Sleeping-car for Atlanta, Jacksonville, and at 
all points in Flordia. Sleeping-car for Atlanta, Jacksonville, and at 
Charlotte with sleeping-car for Augusta. 

CHT TANOOGA AND NORFOLK LIMITED. 

11:45 A - M -> DAILY. — Solid train, consisting of Pullman sleeping-cars 
and coaches, from Chattanooga to Raleigh, arriving at Norfolk at 5:20 p. 
M„ in time to connect with the Old Dominion, Merchants & Miners, Nor- 
folk & and Washington, and Baltimore, Chesapeake & Ricemond Steam- 
ship Companies for all points North and East. Connects at Selma for 
Fayetteville and intermediate stations on the Wilson and Fayetteville 
Short-Cut, daily; daily except Sunday for Newbern and Morehead City; 
daily for Goldsboro and Wilmington an 1 intermediate stations on the 
Wilmington & W T eldon Railroad. 

EXPRESS TRAIN. 

8:53 A. M., DAILY. — Connects at Durham, for Oxford, Keysville, Rich- 
mond; at Greensboro for Washington and all points North. 

3:40 p. m. , DAILY. — For Goldsboro and intermediate stations. 

LOCAL. 

2:00 A. M., DAILY. — Connects at Greensboro for all points North and 
South, and Winston-Salem and points on the Northwestern North Caro- 
lina Railroad; at Salisbury for all points in Western North Carolina, 
Knoxville, Tenn., Cincinnati and Western Points; at Charlotte for Spar- 
tanburg, Greenville, Athens, Atlanta and all points South. 

TRAINS ARRIVE AT RALEIGH : 

EXPRESS TRAIN. 

3:40 p. m., DAILY. — From Atlanta, Charlotte, Greensboro and all points 
South. 

LOCAL. 
7:10 A. M., DAILY. — From Greensboro and all points North and South. 
Sleeping-car from Greensboro to Raleigh. 

"NORFOLK AND CHATTANOOGA LIMITED." 
3:40 P. M., DAILY. — From all points East, Norfolk, Tarboro, Wilson 
and water lines. From Goldsboro, Wilmington, Fayetteville and all 
points in Eastern Carolina. 

"CHATTANOOGA AND NORFOLK LIMITED." 

11:45 A - M -i DAILY. — From New York, Washington, Lynchburg, Dan- 
ville and Greensboro, Chattanooga, Knoxville, Hot Springs and Asheville. 

LOCAL. 

9:00 p. m., Daily Except Sunday. — From Goldsboro and all points 
East. 

EXPRESS TRAIN. 

8:53 A - M ,-> DAILY. — From Goldsboro. 

FOR TICKETS, routes and rates, or other information, call on or write to 'f had. C. 

Sturgis, Ticket Agent, Raleigh, N. C. 
J. M. CULP, Traffic Manager. W. H. GREEN, Gen. Supt. W. A. TURK, G. P. A. 



^9 l\m !—*• 



VESTIBULED LIMITED TRAINS. Double 
Daily service. Shortest and Quickest Route 
to Atlanta, New Orleans, Norfolk, Richmond, 
Washington, Baltimore, Philadelphia, Boston, 
New York. Schedule in effect November, i, 
v — 1896. 

TRAINS LEAVE RALEIGH : 

"Atlanta Special," Pullman Vestibule for Hender- 
2.16 a. m. Daily. son, Weldon, Petersburg, Richmond, Washington, 
Baltimore, Philadelphia, New York and all points 
North. Buffet drawing-rooms sleepers and Pullman 'coaches At- 
lanta to Washington, parlor cars Washington to New York; Pull- 
man sleeping-car Monroe to Portsmouth. Arrives at Washington 
11:43 a. m., Baltimore 12:45 noon, Philadelphia 3:50 p. m., New 
York 6:23 p. m. Also for Ports.nouth, Norfolk, Old Point, and 
local stations Seaboard and Roanoke Railroad. 

For Henderson, Weldon, Suffolk, Portsmouth, Nor- 
11.35 a » m> Daily, folk and intermediate stations; connects at Ports- 
mouth with Bay Line for Old Point and Baltimore; 
with Norfolk & Washington Steamboat Company for Washington, 
with N. Y., P. & N. Railroad for Philadelphia and points North; 
also at Weldon with Atlantic Coast Line for Richmond, Washing- 
ton, Baltimore, Philadelphia and New York; and with Scotland 
Neck Branch for Greenville, Washington and Portsmouth. Pull- 
man sleepirg-car Atlanta to Portsmouth. 

"Atlanta Special," Pullman Vestibule, for Southern 
2.11 a. m. Daily. Pines, Hamlet, Wilmington, Monroe, Charlotte, 
Lincolnton, Shelby, Chester, Clinton, Greenwood, 
Abbeville, Athens, Atlanta, Augusta, Columbia, Macon, Mont- 
gomery, Mobile, New Orleans, Chattanooga, Nashville, Memphis 
and points South and Southwest; through Pullman buffet sleep- 
ers and day coaches Washington to Atlanta, connecting directly at 
Union Depot, Atlanta, with diverging lines; also Pullman sleep- 
ing-car Portsmouth to Monroe. 

For Wilmington, Charlotte, Chester, Greenwood, 
3.40 p. m. Daily. Athens, Atlanta and all intermediate stations, con- 
necting at Union Station, Atlanta, with diverging 
lines. Pullman Sleeping-car Portsmouth to Atlanta. 

TRAINS ARRIVE AT RALEIGH : 

From Norfolk, Portsmouth, and all points North via 
3:40 p. m. Daily. Bay Line and New York P. & N. Railroad, Peters- 
burg, Richmond and Washington, Baltimore, Phila- 
delphia, New York and Boston; also from Greenville, Plymouth, Wash- 
ington, N. C, and Eastern Carolina points, via Weldon. 

"Atlanta Special," Pullman Vestibule, from Atlanta 
2:16 a. m. Daily. and points South, Athens, Abbeville, Greenwood and 

Chester. 

From Charlotte, Athens, Atlanta and intermediate 
1 1 .-30 a. m. Daily, stations. 

"Atlanta Special," from Norfolk, Portsmouth, Hen- 
2:11 a. m. Daily. derson, Weldon, Richmond, Washington, Baltimore, 

Philadelphia, New York and the East 
Magnificent Pullman Vestibuled Trains. No Exra Fare. 

Apply to ticket agent, or to H. S. LEARD, Sol. Pas. Ag't, Raleigh, N. C. 

E. ST. JOHN, Vice-President and General Manager, 

H. W. B. GLOVER, Traffic Manager. 
T. J. ANDERSON, General Passenger Agent. 

V. E. McBEE, General Superintendent.